Sneezing is a normal bodily function in dogs, just like it is for humans. A sneeze is a way for your body to rid itself of an irritant in the upper airway and the same is true for dogs. Many causes of sneezing are harmless; however, sneezing can also be a symptom of a more serious condition.
Is it normal for my dog to sneeze?
Yes. Just like in humans, a sneeze is usually just a way for a dog to remove an environmental irritant from their airway, such as dust or pollen. Some dogs sneeze more because of the shape of their airways. For example, brachycephalic dogs (short-nosed dogs like pugs, french bulldogs, boston terriers, etc.) have genetically compressed and constricted nasal passages, which make them more likely to sneeze as well as wheeze.
If your dog is sneezing a lot, if the sneezing is accompanied by discharge, particularly bloody or yellow/green, or if you notice other respiratory difficulties, you should consult your veterinarian.
What is ‘reverse sneezing’?
A reverse sneeze is a built-in reflex in dogs triggered by an irritant in the back of the throat (nasopharynx) that causes an abrupt suction of air into the nose (rather than out of the nose which is what happens with a regular sneeze). Most dogs will experience a reverse sneezing episode at some point in their life, and this is considered normal.
Reverse sneezing is also more common in brachycephalic dogs because they have a condition called an “elongated soft palate”. This elongated tissue can trigger the reverse sneeze reflex more easily.
During a reverse sneezing episode, your dog may stand rigid, extend their head or neck, their eyes may bulge, and they will produce a loud snorting sound. Sometimes it’s described as sounding a like a goose honk. It can be quite dramatic! The episode could last a few seconds or up to a few minutes. After the episode is over, they will appear normal and it should not cause any lasting issues.
Reverse sneezing can look like a wide variety of things ranging from an obvious sneezing/gagging episode to someone thinking their dog is having a seizure or seriously choking. Often people think it’s a cough, or that the dog is trying to vomit.
If you are unsure if that is what is going on, you can try taking a video with your phone and consult with your veterinarian for clarity.